Let\u2019s imagine you are working as a meteorologist at a national service and you have to provide forecasts about the expected amount of precipitation falling within the next few days. In this example we will use the 6-day accumulated total precipitation amount between September 12, 2018 (00 UTC) and September 18, 2018 (00 UTC), a forecast which became available just a few days or hours before hurricane Florence hit the west cost of the United States of America. The next figure shows the forecast:
# Original NOAA color map and levels noaahex = ["#ffffff", "#7fff00", "#00cd00", "#008b00", "#104e8b", "#1e90ff", "#00b2ee", "#00eeee", "#8968cd", "#912cee", "#8b008b", "#8b0000", "#cd0000", "#ee4000", "#ff7f00", "#cd8500", "#ffd700", "#ffff00", "#ffaeb9"] lev = [0., 0.01, 0.1, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 7.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 60.0] from colorspace import deutan demo(lev, noaahex, titles = ["Original NOAA Colors"])
This is still a very common way to visualize such data sets using flashy (in)famouse RGB rainbow based color palettes, mainly due to historical reasons. The example above uses the color map and contour levels as the original figure published by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; noaa.gov).
This color map exhibits multiple color issues such as strong gradients in luminance (light to dark to light to dark colors), mainly vivid and fully saturated colors, and colors which are very similar (around 1 inch).
In a first step let\u2019s check what might possibly go wrong with this color map. Remember: what you would like to do with these kind of visualizations is to warn the inhabitants of your country about extreme precipitation amounts and possible flood events connected to them. The local population, but also fire fighters and disaster management services, are your customer in this case. Up to 5 percent (in Europe about 10 percent) of the local population have visual constraints such as deuteranomaly (red-green weakness). Furthermore, these forecasts might be printed or displayed on gray scale devices (e.g., newspaper) wherefore the color map should work in all cases.
The two plots below show how people with deuteranomaly perceive the image (left) and how the image looks in gray scale (right).
from colorspace import deutan, desaturate demo(lev, deutan(noaahex), desaturate(noaahex), titles = ["Deutanope", "Desaturated"])
The effectiveness of the colormap completely collapses in both cases as the mapping between colors and values is no more unique and the large differences in luminance guides the reader to areas where only moderate precipitation sums are expected. Large parts of these problems can be solved by simply replacing the color map!
Let\u2019s try something as follows:
from colorspace import sequential_hcl, desaturate, deutan, protan hex = sequential_hcl("Blues 2", power = 2.5, rev = True)(len(lev)) demo(lev, hex, desaturate(hex), deutan(hex), protan(hex), titles = ["No Color Deficiency", "Desaturated", "Deuteranope", "Protanope"])